The Notes

Chapter 1 – Why the Ivy League

1. Rumberger, Russell W., and Gregory J. Palardy. “Test Scores, Dropout Rates, and Transfer Rates as Alternative Indicators of High School Perfor-mance.” American Educational Research Journal 42, no. 1 (2005): 3-42. This study investigated the relationships among several different indicators of high school performance: test scores, dropout rates, transfer rates, and attrition rates. Hierarchical linear models were used to analyze panel data from a sample of 14,199 students who took part in the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988. The results generally support the notion of an alternative as opposed to a common view of school effectiveness. Schools that are effective in promoting student learning (growth in achievement) are not necessarily effective in reducing dropout or transfer rates. In fact, after control for student inputs, high schools exhibit relatively little variability in dropout rates but considerable variation in transfer rates. In addition, characteristics of schools that contributed to performance in one area often did not contribute to performance in another. Given these findings, the authors suggest that, along with test scores, dropout and transfer rates should be used to judge school performance.

2. Cancian, Maria. “Race‐based Versus Class‐based Affirmative Action in College Admissions.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management 17, no. 1 (1998): 94-105. Affirmative action is increasingly under attack. Some argue that racism is no longer a problem, that compensation for past wrongs is inappropriate, and that the ultimate goal of a color-blind society cannot be reached by means of a race-based policy. Others concede the need for some sort of affirmative-action program but argue for a broader definition of disadvantage, often focusing on socioeconomic status variables other than race or ethnicity. According to this perspective, “class-based” affirmative action is a fairer and more politically palatable means to similar ends. Proposals for class-based affirmative action policies have become particularly important in college admissions in the wake of recent court decisions that suggest that race-based scholarships and admissions policies may be unconstitutional. A number of institutions, including the University of California system, have moved to eliminate programs based on race and ethnicity and replace them with programs based on alternative definitions of disadvantage. This article does not attempt to address the issues of the appropriate justifications for affirmative action based on race or class. Documenting the extent and impact of historical and contemporary racism is beyond the scope of this analysis. Instead, the potential impact of a move from race-based to class-based affirmative action is simulated in an effort to begin to answer two questions. First, is class-based affirmative action just another means to the same end? In other words, are racial and ethnic minorities so frequently socioeconomically disadvantaged that most minority youth would be eligible for a class-based program? Second, how would eligibility for class-based affirmative action be determined and what are the implications for the administration of such a program?

3. Avery, Christopher, Mark Glickman, Caroline Hoxby, and Andrew Met-rick. A Revealed Preference Ranking of U.S. Colleges and Universities. No. w10803. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004. We present a method of ranking U.S. undergraduate programs based on students’ revealed preferences. When a student chooses a college among those that have admitted him, that college “wins” his “tournament.” Our method efficiently integrates the information from thousands of such tournaments. We implement the method using data from a national sample of high-achieving students. We demonstrate that this ranking method has strong theoretical properties, elimi-nating incentives for colleges to adopt strategic, inefficient admissions policies to improve their rankings. We also show empirically that our ranking is (1) not vulnerable to strategic manipulation; (2) similar regardless of whether we control for variables, such as net cost, that vary among a college’s admits; (3) similar regardless of whether we account for students selecting where to apply, including Early Decision. We exemplify multiple rankings for different types of students who have preferences that vary systematically.

4. Golden, Daniel. The Price of Admission: How America’s Ruling Class Buys Its Way into Elite Colleges—and Who Gets Left Outside the Gates. Crown Publishing Group/Random House, 2006. Every spring thousands of middle-class and lower-income high-school seniors learn that they have been rejected by America’s most exclusive colleges. What they may never learn is how many candidates like themselves have been passed over in favor of wealthy white students with lesser credentials—children of alumni, big donors, or celebrities.This book argues that America, the so-called land of opportunity, is rapidly becoming an aristocracy in which America’s richest families receive special access to elite higher education—enabling them to give their children even more of a head start. Based on two years of investigative reporting and hundreds of inter-views with students, parents, school administrators, and admissions personnel, this book exposes the corrupt admissions practices that favor the wealthy, the powerful, and the famous. He explores favoritism at many institutions. He reveals that colleges hold Asian American students to a higher standard than whites; comply with Title IX by giving scholarships to rich women in “patrician sports” like horseback riding, squash, and crew; and repay congressmen for favors by admitting their children. This book explodes the myth of an American meritocracy—the belief that no matter what your background, if you are smart and diligent enough, you will have access to the nation’s most elite universities. It is must reading not only for parents and students with a personal stake in college admissions, but also for those disturbed by the growing divide between ordinary and privileged Americans.

5. Hernandez, Michele A. A Is for Admission: The Insider’s Guide to Getting into the Ivy League and Other Top Colleges. Grand Central Publishing, 2010. For generations, the admissions process of the Ivy League schools has been cloaked in mystery and myth. Now Michele A. Hernandez, a former admissions officer at Dartmouth College, finally breaks the ancient code of silence to reveal how the world’s most highly selective schools really make their decisions. With absolute candor, she tells you all the hard truths, how officials factor in every extenuating circumstance and, most importantly, how to make this complex, high-stakes system work for you. Thorough, direct, and written for results, A Is for Admission answers the questions asked by countless student

6. Greene, Jay P., and Greg Forster. “Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States. Education Working Paper No. 3.” Center for Civic Innovation (2003). Students who fail to graduate high school prepared to attend a four-year college are much less likely to gain full access to our country’s economic, political, and social opportunities. In this study we estimate the percentage of students in the public high school class of 2001 who actually possess the minimum qualifications for applying to four-year colleges. To be “college ready” students must pass three crucial hurdles: they must graduate from high school, they must have taken certain courses in high school that colleges require for the acquisition of necessary skills, and they must demonstrate basic literacy skills. Using data from the U.S. Department of Education we are able to estimate the percentage of students who graduate high school as well as the percentage that finish high school ready to attend a four-year college. We are also able to produce these estimates by racial/ethnic group as well as by region and state.
7. Bowen, Howard R. “The Costs of Higher Education: How Much Do Col-
leges and Universities Spend per Student and How Much Should They
Spend?” (1980).
The question of what American colleges and universities
should spend to educate their students is addressed. Both societal and insti-
tutional factors that determine the costs of colleges’ educating their students
and longitudinal changes in the unit cost of higher education are examined.
The following issues are considered: long-term trends in unit cost, faculty and
staff compensation as a major element of cost, costs that have been socially
imposed as the nation has tried to protect and enhance social welfare, and under
maintenance of assets. In addition to examining the higher education system
as a whole, a sample of institutions are also assessed. Cost differences among
institutions, institutional affluence and patterns of resource allocation, effect of
institutional affluence on educational outcomes, and economies and disecon-

omies of scale are analyzed. Implications of the study of national trends and of the study of individual institutions are discussed. Appended materials concern: sources and methods for allocating total expenditures, historical trends in the costs of higher education institutions, and sources and methods of analysis for data on institutional costs. References are included.

8. Miller, Danny, Xiaowei Xu, and Vikas Mehrotra. “When is Human Capital a Valuable Resource? The Performance Effects of Ivy League Selection Among Celebrated CEOs.” Strategic Management Journal 36, no. 6 (2015): 930-944. We investigate whether and when highly trained human capital constitutes a rent‐sustaining resource. Our study of 444 CEOs celebrated on the covers of major U.S. business magazines found an advantage accruing to graduates

of selective universities. Such CEOs led firms with higher and more sustained market valuations. The advantage was strongest for undergraduate programs as these related to the kinds of talent demanded of a CEO. The advantage also was greatest in smaller firms where CEO discretion might be highest and for younger CEOs who may benefit most from college and are less able to appropriate rents. Finally, the advantage accrued to graduates of more recent years, when selective schools had become less socially elitist and increasingly meritocratic, thus favoring human versus social capital.

9. Martelli, Joseph, and Patricia Abels. “The Education of a Leader: Educa-tional Credentials and Other Characteristics of Chief Executive Officers.”

Journal of Education for Business 85, no. 4 (2010): 209-217. The authors identified and described the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies in terms of several education-related and other demographic variables. Specifically, they identified the type and level of degrees earned, including specific majors, and additionally explored several demographic variables, including age, gender and ethnicity. They also identified trends among CEOs and across industries in order to further understand the educational profile of these leaders. Secondary data covering more than 50 variables and 500 cases were collected from various business-related and research databases.

10. Birley, Sue, and David Norburn. “Owners and Managers: The Venture 100

vs. the Fortune 500.” Journal of Business Venturing 2, no. 4 (1987): 351-363. A steady supply of entrepreneurs who will build the growth firms of the future has always been seen as fundamental to the economic health of a country. However, as companies have grown to the point where many have balance sheets larger than many countries, the role of the Top Management Team in manag-ing these corporate giants has also received more prominence. Unfortunately, research into the two groups of current entrepreneurs and large corporation managers has been both sparse, and has followed different, though parallel, paths. This research examines their backgrounds and asks the question whether the basic assumption that they are, in fact, different is correct—who are the high-flying entrepreneurs, and are they any different from successful corporate leaders? Data was drawn from three sources. A questionnaire was sent to the 167 founders listed in the July 1984 edition of Venture Magazine as the “Venture 100”—“the nation’s top entrepreneurs who run the companies they founded in the past ten years.” Sixty-seven useable replies were received from 40% of the founders and 52% of the companies. Comparative data was extracted from the “Korn Ferry’s International Executive Profile: A Survey of Corporate Leaders,” which surveyed five senior executives from each of the Fortune 500 companies. A response rate of 47% was received from a survey of 3640 executives. Further comparative analysis was extracted from the characteristics of senior executives of all firms in five selected industries (Dairy, Mobile Homes, Tires, Footwear, and Machine Tools) as listed in Duns Reference Book of Corporate Manage-ment 1983/1984. Data was collected on personal characteristics (age, family background, and education), previous employment experience, managerial style, and work patterns. The null hypothesis of there being no significant difference between high-flying entrepreneurs and their counterparts in the largest U.S. corporations was not sustained. Whereas certain characteristics showed similar patterning—previous employment experience, managerial success traits—the remaining variables demonstrated significant differences. The entrepreneurs were younger, better educated, had more international experience, and worked harder than their corporate colleagues. If replicated elsewhere, the results of this study have particular implications for the type of educational and employment experience necessary to affect the supply of the entrepreneurs of the future.

11. Zajac, Edward J., and James D. Westphal. “Who Shall Succeed? How CEO/ board Preferences and Power Affect the Choice of New CEOs.” Academy of Management Journal 39, no. 1 (1996): 64-90. This study shows how social psychological and sociopolitical factors can create divergence in the preferences of an incumbent CEO and existing board regarding the desired characteristics of a new CEO, and how relative CEO/board power can predict whose preferences are realized. Using extensive longitudinal data, we found that more powerful boards are more likely to change CEO characteristics in the direction of their own demographic profile. Outside successors are also typically demographically different from their CEO predecessors but demographically similar to the boards.

Chapter2 – Birth through PK: the foundation

12. Nelson, Charles A. Romania’s Abandoned Children. Harvard University Press, 2014. The implications of early experience for children’s brain develop-ment, behavior, and psychological functioning have long absorbed caregivers, researchers, and clinicians. The 1989 fall of Romania’s Ceausescu regime left approximately 170,000 children in 700 overcrowded, impoverished institutions across Romania, and prompted the most comprehensive study to date on the effects of institutionalization on children’s wellbeing. Romania’s Abandoned Children, the authoritative account of this landmark study, documents the devastating toll paid by children who are deprived of responsive care, social interaction, stimulation, and psychological comfort. Launched in 2000, the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) was a rigorously controlled investigation of foster care as an alternative to institutionalization. Research-ers included 136 abandoned infants and toddlers in the study and randomly assigned half of them to foster care created specifically for the project. The other half stayed in Romanian institutions, where conditions remained substandard. Over a twelve-year span, both groups were assessed for physical growth, cog-nitive functioning, brain development, and social behavior. Data from a third group of children raised by their birth families were collected for comparison. The study found that the institutionalized children were severely impaired in IQ and manifested a variety of social and emotional disorders, as well as changes in brain development. However, the earlier an institutionalized child was placed into foster care, the better the recovery. Combining scientific, historical, and personal narratives in a gripping, often heartbreaking, account, Romania’s Abandoned Children highlights the urgency of efforts to help the millions of parentless children living in institutions throughout the world.

13. Chugani, Harry T., Michael E. Behen, Otto Muzik, Csaba Juhász, Ferenc Nagy, and Diane C. Chugani. “Local Brain Functional Activity Following Early Deprivation: A Study of Post Institutionalized Romanian Orphans.” Neuroimage 14, no. 6 (2001): 1290-1301. Early global deprivation of institu-tionalized children may result in persistent specific cognitive and behavioral

deficits. In order to examine brain dysfunction underlying these deficits, we have applied positron emission tomography using 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoroglucose in 10 children (6 males, 4 females, mean age 8.8 years) adopted from Romanian orphanages. Using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), the pattern of brain glucose metabolism in the orphans was compared to the patterns obtained from two control groups: (i) a group of 17 normal adults (9 males, 8 females, mean age 27.6 years) and (ii) a group of 7 children (5 males and 2 females, mean age 10.7 years) with medically refractory focal epilepsy, but normal glucose metabolism pattern in the contralateral hemisphere. Consistent with previous studies of children adopted from Romanian orphanages, neuropsychological assessment of Romanian orphans in the present study showed mild neurocog-nitive impairment, impulsivity, and attention and social deficits. Comparing the normalized glucose metabolic rates to those of normal adults, the Romanian orphans showed significantly decreased metabolism bilaterally in the orbitalfrontal gyrus, the infralimbic prefrontal cortex, the medial temporal structures (amygdala and head of hippocampus), the lateral temporal cortex, and the brain stem. These findings were confirmed using a region-of-interest approach. SPM analysis showed significantly decreased glucose metabolism in the same brain regions comparing the orphans to the nonepileptic hemisphere of the childhood epilepsy controls. Dysfunction of these brain regions may result from the stress of early global deprivation and may be involved in the long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits displayed by some Romanian orphans.

14. Fisher, Lianne, Elinor W. Ames, Kim Chisholm, and Lynn Savoie. “Prob-lems Reported by Parents of Romanian Orphans Adopted to British Columbia.” International Journal of Behavioral Development 20, no. 1 (1997): 67-82. Behavior problems in Romanian orphans adopted to Canada were examined through parents’ interview reports of specific problems, and chil-dren’s scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (Achenbach, Edelbrock, & Howell, 1987) completed by their parents. Three groups of children were studied. Romanian orphanage (RO) children had spent at least 8 months in a Romanian orphanage. Parents’ reports of RO children’s problems were com-pared to parent reports from 2 comparison groups: (1) Canadian-born children (CB) who were not adopted and never institutionalized; and (2) children who would have gone to a Romanian orphanage had they not been adopted before 4 months of age (Romanian Comparison: RC). RO children scored higher than CB and RC children for Total problems and Internalizing problems on the CBCL. No significant differences were found for any group comparison on Externalizing problems. CBCL scores were positively correlated with RO children’s total time in orphanage. According to parent interview, RO children had more eating problems, medical problems, and stereotyped behavior prob-lems than both CB and RC children. These problems were distinctive ones, rarely if ever being reported for CB or RC children. It is suggested that these distinctive RO problems arise out of a normal developmental base, and reflect either continuations of orphanage behaviors, reactions to stimuli different from those experienced in orphanage, or lack of opportunity for development or learning within the orphanage.

15. Kaler, Sandra R., and B. J. Freeman. “Analysis of Environmental Depriva-tion: Cognitive and Social Development in Romanian Orphans.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 35, no. 4 (1994): 769-781. The cognitive and social developmental status of a representative: group of Romanian orphans between the ages of 23 and 50 months living in the Leagan de Copii in Timiso-ara, Romania was assessed using a variety of traditional and nontraditional measures. Results indicated that the orphanage sample all exhibited deficits in cognitive and social functioning; the majority were severely delayed. Cor-relations between the traditional and nontraditional measures indicated that children’s delays occurred across domains. Deficits were not related to length of time in the orphanage, age at entrance, Apgar scores, or birthweight. The children’s greatest capability was in peer social interaction.

16. O’Connor, Thomas G., Diana Bredenkamp, Michael Rutter, and English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) Study Team. “Attachment Disturbances and Disorders in Children Exposed to Early Severe Deprivation.” Infant Mental Health Journal 20, no. 1 (1999): 10-29. Attachment disorder has garnered considerable attention in recent years. Despite the clear clinical and theoretical importance of attachment disorder, however, there are remarkably few systematic studies of attachment disorder behaviors or their etiology, course, and associated features. Evidence of attachment disorder behaviors was exam-ined in a sample of 111 children who experienced institutional upbringing and were later adopted into the United Kingdom, and a comparison sample of 52 intracountry adopted children not exposed to early deprivation. All children were 4 years of age at the time of assessment. Information was obtained from a semi-structured interview with the parent, questionnaires, and direct assess-ment of the children. Results indicated that attachment disorder behaviors were positively associated with duration of severe deprivation, but a substantial number of children exposed to even prolonged severe early privation did not exhibit these symptoms. Retrospective parental reports further indicated that children with concurrent disturbances in attachment behavior were likely to have displayed disturbances early on (i.e., at placement), but there was also considerable evidence for discontinuity. The discussion focuses on how these findings address conceptual and diagnostic issues of attachment disorder. In addition, case illustrations are offered to extend the empirical findings and to highlight central aspects of attachment disorder that require further attention.

17. Wilson, Samantha L. “Post-institutionalization: The Effects of Early Deprivation on Development of Romanian Adoptees.” Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 20, no. 6 (2003): 473-483. Accounts of childhood adversity and extreme deprivation are not new to psychological literature. Intensive case studies of children raised in isolation or extreme deprivation have provided developmental psychologists a better understanding of the effects of early environment on later development (see Curtiss, 1977, for a detailed account of the developmental sequelae of Genie, a girl rescued from 13 years of restraint and isolation). The influx of children adopted from impoverished institutional care has provided a more recent opportunity to investigate the long-term adjustment and outcome of children who endured a circumscribed period of deprivation (Gunnar, Bruce,

& Grotevant, 2000). The following paper will review the research concerning the physical, cognitive, and emotional development of children adopted from Romanian institutions within the last 15 years. Understanding this population is not only important for helping these children and their families, but also to delineate the effects of early deprivation and elucidate potential outcomes for other populations that experience early adverse life events.

18. Burley, Mason, and Mina Halpern. “Educational Attainment of Foster Youth: Achievement and Graduation Outcomes for Children in State Care.” (2001). This report summarizes findings from a statewide analysis of the edu-cational attainment of foster youth in Washington’s public-school system. It analyzes various factors related to educational success, comparing the outcomes of youth in long-term foster care with the state’s school-age population. The report merges data from the child welfare system and the public schools to detail the educational experience of students, including foster youth, from elementary school through high school completion. On average, foster youth score 15 to 20 percentile points below non-foster youth on statewide achieve-ment tests. Only 59 percent of foster youth enrolled in 11th grade complete high school by the end of grade 12. The completion rate for non-foster youth is 86 percent. At both the elementary and secondary levels, twice as many foster youth have repeated a grade, changed schools during the year, or enrolled in special education programs compared with non-foster youth. A youth’s length of stay in foster care and other placement characteristics do not appear to relate to educational attainment. Three appendices present regression results for schoolwide assessments, long-term foster youth assessments, and grade 11 high school completion.

19. Pecora, Peter J., Jason Williams, Ronald C. Kessler, Eva Hiripi, Kirk O’Brien, John Emerson, Mary A. Herrick, and Dan Torres. “Assessing the Educational Achievements of Adults Who Were Formerly Placed in Family Foster Care.” Child & Family Social Work 11, no. 3 (2006): 220-231.

Case records and interviews concerning educational achievements of 1087 foster care alumni are presented. Youth were served by a voluntary agency in 23 communities across the USA between 1966 and 1998. Because the alumni were older than most foster care follow‐up studies, a more extensive picture of educational achievement was possible. High school graduation and college enrolment rates were comparable to or even greater than those of the general population, but the number of alumni completing high school with a Graduate Equivalency Diploma and the college dropout rates were a concern. Predictors of high school completion while in foster care, such as fewer placement changes, extracurricular activities and independent living training, are presented, along with recommendations for improving educational and vocational preparation.

20. Harden, Brenda Jones. “Safety and Stability for Foster Children: A Developmental Perspective.” The Future of Children (2004): 31-47. Children in foster care face a challenging journey through childhood. In addition to the troubling family circumstances that bring them into state care, they face addi-tional difficulties within the child welfare system that may further compromise their healthy development. This article discusses the importance of safety and stability to healthy child development and reviews the research on the risks associated with maltreatment and the foster care experience. It finds that family stability is best viewed as a process of caregiving practices that, when present, can greatly facilitate healthy child development. Children in foster care, as a result of exposure to risk factors such as poverty, maltreatment, and the foster care experience, face multiple threats to their healthy development, including poor physical health, attachment disorders, compromised brain functioning, inadequate social skills, and mental health difficulties. Providing stable and nurturing families can bolster the resilience of children in care and ameliorate negative impacts on their developmental outcomes. The author concludes that developmentally-sensitive child welfare policies and practices designed to promote the well-being of the whole child, such as ongoing screening and assessment and coordinated systems of care, are needed to facilitate the healthy development of children in foster care.

21. Hansen, Robin L., Fatema Lakhani Mawjee, Keith Barton, Mary B. Metcalf, and Nancy R. Joye. “Comparing the Health Status of Low-income Children In and Out of Foster Care.” Child Welfare 83, no. 4 (2004): 367. Children in foster care face poverty, family dysfunction, neglect, and abuse, with high rates of chronic health, emotional, and developmental problems. This study compared the overall health status of a group of children entering foster care with a group of Medicaid-eligible children living with their parents, matched for age and gender. It identified significantly more health and developmental problems in children in foster care than in the comparison group. Possible contributors to the higher percentage of problems among foster care children may be that the foster children have more problems related to the underlying risk factors resulting in placement, or that the foster care physicians conducted a more comprehensive assessment or had lower clinical thresholds. Further research is necessary to identify and treat the problems of this high-risk group. De Fabrique, Nathalie, Stephen J. Romano, Gregory M. Vecchi, and Vincent B. Van Hasselt. “Understanding Stockholm Syndrome.” FBI L. Enforcement Bull. 76 (2007): 10. The term “Stockholm syndrome” was initially used to explain the phenomenon that emerged during the 1973 robbery of a bank in Stockholm, Sweden. The two robbers held four bank employees hostage in a bank vault from August 23 to 28. During their ordeal, the hostages became emotionally attached to their captors and even defended them after the incident was resolved without any deaths or serious injuries. The Stockholm syndrome occurs when hostages have positive feelings for their captors; hostages show fear, mistrust, and anger toward the authorities; and perpetrators develop positive feelings toward hostages. Most psychologists agree on the conditions neces-sary for the Stockholm syndrome to occur. First, a hostage cannot escape and depends on the hostage-taker for life. Second, the hostage is isolated from other people and is exposed only to the captor’s perspective of the situation. Third, the hostage-taker threatens to kill the hostage, and the hostage takes the threat seriously. Fourth, the hostage views the hostage-taker as kind so long as the hostage-taker is not abusive to the hostage. Although these conditions necessary for Stockholm syndrome rarely occur, hostage negotiators should attempt to manipulate barricaded hostage situations, so hostage-takers develop positive attitudes toward the hostages. In order to strike the balance necessary for suc-cessful negotiations, negotiators should show concern for the hostage-taker’s welfare first before seeking to develop the hostage-taker’s positive feelings for the hostages.

Chapter 3 – Elementary school

22. Lane, John, Andrew M. Lane, and Anna Kyprianou. “Self-efficacy, Self-es-teem and their Impact on Academic Performance.” Social Behavior and Personality: an International Journal 32, no. 3 (2004): 247-256. This study investigated relationships between self-efficacy, self-esteem, previous perfor-mance accomplishments, and academic performance among a sample of 205 postgraduate students. Participants completed measures of past performance accomplishments, self-esteem, and self-efficacy at the start of a 15-week course. Each student’s average grade from modules studied was used as the performance measure. Correlation results indicated significant relationships between self-ef-ficacy and self-esteem. Multiple regression results indicated that self-efficacy mediated the relationship between performance accomplishments and academic performance. Findings lend support to the predictive effectiveness of self-efficacy measures in academic settings.

23. Tauer, John M., and Judith M. Harackiewicz. “The Effects of Cooperation and Competition on Intrinsic Motivation and Performance.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86, no. 6 (2004): 849. The authors exam-ined the effects of competition and cooperation on intrinsic motivation and performance in 4 studies. Across 3 behavioral studies that involved shooting a basketball, no differences were observed between competition and cooperation on task enjoyment or performance. However, the combination of competition and cooperation (intergroup competition) consistently led to higher levels of intrinsic motivation, and in 2 of the 3 studies, performance. In a questionnaire study, the authors replicated the positive effects of intergroup competition on enjoyment and examined process measures that might account for these effects. These findings suggest that competition and cooperation both have positive aspects and that structuring recreational activities to include both can facilitate high levels of both intrinsic motivation and performance.

24. Michaels, James W. “Classroom Reward Structures and Academic Perfor-mance.” Review of Educational Research 47, no. 1 (1977): 87-98. Four general classroom reward structures were identified (individual reward con-tingencies, group reward contingencies, individual competition and group competition) and studies comparing their effectiveness in strengthening the independent academic performance of students were reviewed. The most strik-ing finding was the consistent superiority of individual competition.

25. Medlin, Richard G. “Homeschooling and the Question of Socialization Revisited.” Peabody Journal of Education 88, no. 3 (2013): 284-297. This article reviews recent research on homeschooled children’s socialization. The

research indicates that homeschooling parents expect their children to respect and get along with people of diverse backgrounds, provide their children with a variety of social opportunities outside the family, and believe their children’s social skills are at least as good as those of other children. What homeschooled children think about their own social skills is less clear. Compared to chil-dren attending conventional schools, however, research suggests that they have higher quality friendships and better relationships with their parents and other adults. They are happy, optimistic, and satisfied with their lives. Their moral reasoning is at least as advanced as that of other children, and they may be more likely to act unselfishly. As adolescents, they have a strong sense of social responsibility and exhibit less emotional turmoil and problem behaviors than their peers. Those who go on to college are socially involved and open to new experiences. Adults who were homeschooled as children are civically engaged and functioning competently in every way measured so far. An alarmist view of homeschooling, therefore, is not supported by empirical research. It is sug-gested that future studies focus not on outcomes of socialization but on the process itself.

26. Gathercole, Rachel. The Well-adjusted Child: The Social Benefits of Home-schooling. Mapletree Publishing Company, 2007. Socialization may well be the single most important aspect of education today. With high and rising rates of divorce, drug abuse, youth violence, alcoholism, teen promiscuity, and so forth, we cannot afford to let this issue go unexamined. To cling to the idea that what we, as a culture, are doing now is the right and best way for all children simply because it is what we are used to is to shut our eyes and minds to other possibilities—possibilities that may well afford greater happiness, success, peace, and safety to our own children. At a time when people feel more disconnected than ever before, we cannot afford to overlook or allow ourselves to be blinded to an option which offers great benefits, including a rich, fulfilling, and healthy social life, that our children may well need for the future. Homeschooling offers great social benefits to kids and parents. And when we understand them, our children are the ones who will win.

27. Romanowski, Michael H. “Revisiting the Common Myths about Homeschooling.” The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas 79, no. 3 (2006): 125-129 The author examines four common myths that still influence individuals regarding their perspective and under-standing of the role homeschooling plays in the education of American children. Myth 1 is that homeschooling produces social misfits, stemming from the belief that homeschooled students lack the socialization skills necessary for normal functioning in today’s society. Myth 2 is that homeschooling fails to prepare good citizens by “isolating” students from the world, including political and social involvement. Myth 3 is that students who are homeschooled have dif-ficulty entering college due to not having a high school diploma, grades, and SAT or ACT scores and might be at a disadvantage with their postsecondary studies. Myth 4 is that most people homeschool for religious reasons. In each case, realities are presented dispelling these myths. The author concludes that the expectation that public education should adequately serve the needs of children from broad and diverse backgrounds needs reconsideration. Public schools do not, cannot, and probably should not be expected to meet the needs of every child in the community. Instead, parents, schools, and the community need to work together to educate all children and maximize their potential, regardless of what form of education parents choose. Murphy, Joseph. “The Social and Educational Outcomes of Homeschooling.” Sociological Spectrum 34, no. 3 (2014): 244-272. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the outcomes of homeschooling in America. We ground the work in an examination of the importance of homeschooling in society in general and education in particular. We provide an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the existing research base on homeschooling. With an eye on methodological weaknesses in the homeschool research, we compile data on what is known about the outcomes of this social movement and educational reform. We document the impact of homeschooling on the social fabric of the nation (e.g., families) and the institution of schooling (e.g., student learning outcomes).

Chapter 4 – Middle school

28. Dempster, Robert, Beth Wildman, and Adam Keating. “The Role of Stigma in Parental Help-seeking for Child Behavior Problems.” Journal of Clin-ical Child & Adolescent Psychology 42, no. 1 (2013): 56-67. The present study examined the relationship between stigma and parental help-seeking after controlling for demographics, child behavior, and barriers to treatment. One hundred fifteen parents of children ages 4 to 8 years were surveyed during well-child visits in a rural pediatric primary care practice. Parental perceptions of stigma toward parents and children were both assessed. Parents believe that children are more likely to be stigmatized by the public and personally impacted by stigma. In linear regression analyses, parents rated themselves as more likely to attend parenting classes with lower levels of self-stigma and greater levels of personal impact of stigma. Stigma toward the child was not associated with help-seeking. Child behavior moderated the relationship between stigma and parental help-seeking. When referring parents to treatment, providers should address potential stigma concerns. Future research should assess both the impact of the stigma of attending treatment and the stigma of having a child with behavior problems.

29. Block, Mary Ann. No More Ritalin: Treating ADHD Without Drugs. Kens-ington Books, 1996. Outlines why Ritalin may be dangerous to children while offering parents safer and more effective alternatives for treating ADHD, providing accompanying case histories and research.

30. Safer, Daniel J. “Are Stimulants Overprescribed for Youths with ADHD?.” Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 12, no. 1 (2000): 55-62. Critics of stimulant treatment for youths with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased their rhetoric of late, contending that the leading medication for it, Ritalin®, is vastly overprescribed. Additionally, they claim that Ritalin (methylphenidate) is inherently dangerous and that the entire system of the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD is seriously flawed. The critics view the underlying reason for the “epidemic” as societal, due to our modern pace of living, our competitive society, and our consumer emphasis. Rejoinders to and clarifications of the more tangible points of the critics are presented, followed by a discussion of some more practical and legitimate concerns for researchers in this area. These concerns include changes within the ADHD category, the clin-ical need for multiple sources of diagnostic data, infrequent teacher–physician communication, problematic ADHD/conduct disorder comorbidity in ado-lescence, and the limited amount of community-based research.

31. Jensen, Peter S., Lori Kettle, Margaret T. Roper, Michael T. Sloan, Mina K. Dulcan, Christina Hoven, Hector R. Bird, Jose J. Bauermeister, and Jennifer D. Payne. “Are Stimulants Overprescribed? Treatment of ADHD in Four U.S. Communities.” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 38, no. 7 (1999): 797-804. To address rising concerns about the possible over-diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and overtreatment with stimulants. To date, almost no studies have examined ADHD in unbiased community-based studies, ascertaining both the prevalence of the diagnosis within non-refereed populations and the extent to which various treatments (i.e., stimulant medication, mental health treatments, and educational interventions) are used. As a part of the Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA) Study, the authors examined epidemiological survey data obtained from 1,285 children and their parents across 4 U.S. communities. Analyses examined the frequency of children’s ADHD diagnosis, the extent to which medications were prescribed, as well as the provision of other services (e.g., psychosocial treatments, school-based educational interventions). Findings indicated that 5.1% of children met full DSM-III-RADHD criteria across the pooled sample. Only 12.5% of children meeting ADHD criteria had been treated with stimulants during the previous 12 months. Some children who had been prescribed stimulants did not meet full ADHD diagnostic criteria, but these children manifested high levels of ADHD symptoms, suggesting that the medication had been appropriately prescribed. Children with ADHD were generally more likely to receive mental health counseling and/or school-based interventions than medication. Medi-cation treatments are often not used in treating ADHD children identified in the community, suggesting the need for better education of parents, physicians, and mental health professionals about the effectiveness of these treatments. On the basis of these data it cannot be concluded that substantial “overtreatment” with stimulants is occurring across communities in general.

32. Svetlov, Stanislav I., Firas H. Kobeissy, and Mark S. Gold. “Performance Enhancing, Non-prescription Use of Ritalin: A Comparison with Amphet-amines and Cocaine.” Journal of Addictive Diseases 26, no. 4 (2007): 1-6. Ritalin, known under chemical name methylphenidate (MPH), is a psychostimulant prescribed to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other conditions. Psychotropic effects and pharmacological pathways evoked by MPH are similar, but not identical to those produced by amphetamines and cocaine. Although not completely understood in detail, MPH psychostimulation is mediated by the increase of central dopamine (DA) and possibly norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (ST) due to decrease of their re-uptake via binding to and inhibition of DA, NE, and ST transporters. Despite similarity in psychopharmacological effects, the rewarding/reinforcing ability of MPH appears to be significantly lower than amphetamines and espe-cially cocaine. MPH and similar medications have been widely used on college campuses and by students preparing for exams. Nicknamed ‘steroids for SATs,’ MPH and related medications are purchased without prescription and their use may even be encouraged by parents and tutors. However, while widely and safely used and administered for over forty years, Ritalin generated significant controversy including MPH abuse and addiction, and adverse reactions. It is now clear that treatment of ADD/ADHD with psychostimulants prevents drug abuse and addictions. Use by those without any medical or psychiatric diagnosis is increasing. In this mini-review, we discuss psychopharmacological and behav-ioral aspects, and outline neurochemical mechanisms that may provoke Ritalin abuse, addiction and adverse effects compared to amphetamines and cocaine.

33. Breggin, Peter. Talking Back to Ritalin: What Doctors Aren’t Telling You About Stimulants and ADHD. Da Capo Press, 2007. Millions of children take Ritalin for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The drug’s manufac-turer, Novartis, claims that Ritalin is the “solution” to this widespread problem. But hidden behind the well-oiled public-relations machine is a potentially devastating reality: children are being given a drug that can cause the same bad effects as amphetamine and cocaine, including behavioral disorders, growth suppression, neurological tics, agitation, addiction, and psychosis. Talking Back to Ritalin uncovers these and other startling facts and translates the research findings for parents and doctors alike. An advocate for education not med-ication, Dr. Breggin empowers parents to channel distracted, disenchanted, and energetic children into powerful, confident, and brilliant members of the family and society.

34. Harpin, Valerie A. “The Effect of ADHD on the Life of an Individual, Their Family, and Community from Preschool to Adult Life.” Archives of Disease in Childhood 90, no. suppl 1 (2005): i2-i7. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may affect all aspects of a child’s life. Indeed, it impacts not only on the child, but also on parents and siblings, causing disturbances to family and marital functioning. The adverse effects of ADHD upon children and their families changes from the preschool years to primary school and adolescence, with varying aspects of the disorder being more prominent at different stages. ADHD may persist into adulthood causing disruptions to both professional and personal life. In addition, ADHD has been associated with increased healthcare costs for patients and their family members.

35. Volkow, Nora D., and James M. Swanson. “Does Childhood Treatment of ADHD with Stimulant Medication Affect Substance Abuse in Adult-hood?.” (2008): 553-555. One of the most controversial issues in childhood psychiatry is whether the wide-spread use of stimulant medications to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk of substance abuse in adulthood. Part of the rationale for this concern is that stimulant medications (methylphenidate and amphetamine) share with drugs of abuse the ability to increase dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens, which is the neural mechanism considered crucial for their rein-forcing effects (1). Indeed, methylphenidate and amphetamine are sometimes abused in some settings (2). This misuse can produce dependence. Another reason for concern is the timing of exposure. Human epidemiological studies have shown that the earlier an individual is exposed to substances with abuse potential, such as alcohol and nicotine, the greater the risk of drug abuse and dependence in adulthood (3). However, the opposite perspective has also been proposed—that stimulant treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD may reduce the risk of later substance abuse (4). Considering that individuals with ADHD are at higher-than-normal risk for substance abuse (5), it is urgent that these two perspectives be addressed properly, yet relatively few clinical studies have done so.

36. Robertson, Donald, and James Symons. “Do Peer Groups Matter? Peer Group Versus Schooling Effects on Academic Attainment.” Economica 70, no. 277 (2003): 31-53. This paper estimates an educational production function. Educational attainment is a function of peer group, parental input and schooling. Conventional measures of school quality are not good predictors for academic attainment, once we control for peer group effects; parental qualities also have strong effects on academic attainment. This academic attainment is a then a key determinant of subsequent labor market success, as measured by earnings. The main methodological innovation in this paper is the nomination of a set of instruments, very broad regions of birth, which, as a whole, pass close scrutiny for validity and permit unbiased estimation of the production function.

37. McEwan, Patrick J. “Peer Effects on Student Achievement: Evidence from

Chile.” Economics of Education Review 22, no. 2 (2003): 131-141. This paper reports estimates of peer effects on student achievement, using a 1997 census of eighth-grade achievement in Chile. The data allow detailed measures of peer characteristics to be constructed for each classroom within a school. The paper addresses the endogeneity of peer variables by including school fixed effects that control for unobserved family and student characteristics. The esti-mates suggest that the classroom mean of mothers’ education is an important determinant of individual achievement, though subject to diminishing marginal returns. Additional specifications using family fixed effects are not suggestive that estimates are biased by within-school sorting.

38. Zimmerman, David J. “Peer Effects in Academic Outcomes: Evidence from a Natural Experiment.” Review of Economics and Statistics 85, no. 1 (2003): 9-23. I use data from Williams College to implement a quasi-experimental empirical strategy aimed at measuring peer effects in academic outcomes. In particular, I use data on individual students’ grades, their SAT scores, and the SAT scores of their roommates. I argue that first-year roommates are assigned randomly with respect to academic ability. This allows me to measure differences in grades of high-, medium-, or low-SAT students living with high-, medium-, or low-SAT roommates. With random assignment these estimates would pro-vide compelling estimates of the effect of roommates’ academic characteristics on an individual’s grades. I also consider the effect of peers at somewhat more aggregated levels. In particular, I consider the effects associated with different academic environments in clusters of rooms that define distinct social units. The results suggest that peer effects are almost always linked more strongly with

verbal SAT scores than with math SAT scores. Students in the middle of the SAT distribution may have somewhat worse grades if they share a room with a student who is in the bottom 15% of the verbal SAT distribution. The effects are not large but are statistically significant in many models.Chapter 5 – High school – Boot camp

39. Kohn, Alfie. “The Dangerous Myth of Grade Inflation.” Chronicle of Higher Education 49, no. 11 (2002): B7. Examines public worries about grade inflation. States that these concerns are neither new nor well-founded. Asserts that these “myths” perpetuate a tendency to confuse quality with difficulty.

40. Mulvenon, Sean, and Dan Ferritor. “Grade Inflation in Higher Education: Isolated or Systemic?.” International Journal of Learning 12, no. 6 (2005).

An issue of gaining relevance in higher education is the steady increase in grades during the last four decades. Numerous postsecondary institutions have exam-ined the effect of increasing grades and have implemented or are investigating strategies to mitigate this current phenomenon. Many questions and theories exist regarding the impact of what has been referred to as “grade inflation” and the purpose of this study was to empirically examine the impact of increasing grades at a major southern AAU research institution, the University of Arkansas. More specifically, to determine the effect, if any, of increasing grades on the academic quality of degrees.

41. Hunt, Lester H., ed. Grade inflation: Academic Standards in Higher Educa-tion. Suny Press, 2008. This book provides a provocative look at the issues and

controversies surrounding grade inflation, and, more generally, grading practices in American higher education. The contributors confront the issues from a number of different disciplines and varying points of view. Topics explored include empirical evidence for and against the claim that there is a general upward trend in grading, whether grade inflation (if it exists) is a problem, which ethical considerations are relevant to grading, and whether heavy reliance on anonymous student evaluations of teaching excellence has a distorting effect on grading practices. Finally, the contributors offer contrasting perspectives on the prospects for reform.

42. Tucker, Jan, and Bari Courts. “Grade Inflation in the College Classroom.” Foresight 12, no. 1 (2010): 45-53. The purpose of this article is to assess the concept of grade inflation in higher education institutions in an effort to deter-mine its prevalence, causes, and strategies that can be implemented to curtail it. A literature review of the problem is presented along with several strategies as possible solutions to restraining the problem of escalating grades in the college classroom. The problem of grade inflation has been a topic of concern for over a century and there are no quick fixes or simple methods of reversing this trend but there are several alternatives presented which could help curtail this trend. Most of the research is based on anecdotal research. Very little has been written on how to fix this problem. This paper brings this issue to the forefront in an effort to engage the reader, college administrators and educators. Originality/ value – The paper begins with an overview of previous research in this area and then moves on to what is currently being implemented to curb grade inflation. The authors then propose several methods and possible solutions that could be implemented to deal with this problem.

43. Finefter-Rosenbluh, Ilana, and Meira L. Levinson. “What Is Wrong with Grade Inflation (If Anything)?.” (2015). Grade inflation is a global phenome-non that has garnered widespread condemnation among educators, researchers, and the public. Yet, few have deliberated over the ethics of grading, let alone the ethics of grade inflation. The purpose of this paper is to map out and examine the ethics of grade inflation. By way of beginning, we clarify why grade infla-tion is a problem of practical ethics embedded in contemporary social practice. Then, we illuminate three different aspects of grade inflation—longitudinal, compressed, and comparative—and explore the ethical dilemmas that each one raises. We demonstrate how these three aspects may be seen as corresponding to three different victims of grade inflation—individuals, institutions, and society—and hence also to three potential agents of harm—teachers, schools,

and educational systems. Next, we reflect upon various compelling reasons that these agents inflate grades, whether from an ethic of care, fiduciary responsi-bility, or simple self-preservation. Subsequently, we consider a variety of means of combatting grade inflation and invite more educators and philosophers to delve into the complex practical ethics of grade inflation.

44. Chan, William, Li Hao, and Wing Suen. “A Signaling Theory of Grade Inflation.” International Economic Review 48, no. 3 (2007): 1065-1090.

45. Ziomek, Robert L., and Joseph C. Svec. “High School Grades and Achieve-ment: Evidence of Grade Inflation.” NASSP Bulletin 81, no. 587 (1997): 105-113.

46. Woodruff, David J., and Robert L. Ziomek. “High School Grade Inflation from 1991 to 2003. Research Report Series 2004-04.” ACT Inc (2004). This report presents the results of a study investigating inflation in high school grade point average (HSGPA). Inflation was measured by comparing HSGPA to ACT Assessment (ACT) scores over the years 1991 to 2003. The results indicate the presence of grade inflation over the 13 years. That is, HSGPAs increased without a concomitant increase in achievement, as measured by the ACT. Both the marginal analyses and the conditional analyses reveal the pres-ence of grade inflation. Depending on the subject area, the average amount of grade inflation over the 13 years varied between 0.20 and 0.26 on a HSGPA scale of 0 (F) to 4 (A).

Chapter 6 – High school: How to knock it out of the park

47. Vogel, Sarah A. “The Politics of Plastics: The Making and Unmaking of
Bisphenol a “Safety”.” American Journal of Public Health 99, no. S3
(2009): S559-S566. Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic chemical used in the
production of plastics since the 1950s and a known endocrine disruptor,
is a ubiquitous component of the material environment and human body.
New research on very-low-dose exposure to BPA suggests an association with
adverse health effects, including breast and prostate cancer, obesity, neurobe-
havioral problems, and reproductive abnormalities. These findings challenge
the long-standing scientific and legal presumption of BPA’s safety. The history
of how BPA’s safety was defined and defended provides critical insight into the

questions now facing lawmakers and regulators: is BPA safe, and if not, what steps must be taken to protect the public’s health?

48. Lanphear, Bruce P., Charles V. Vorhees, and David C. Bellinger. “Pro-tecting Children from Environmental Toxins.” PLoS medicine 2, no. 3 (2005): e61. Epidemics of overt toxicity following widespread environmental contamination from commercial toxins heralded the discovery of children’s enhanced vulnerability to lead, methyl mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tobacco. Over the past three decades, researchers have found that remarkably low-level exposures to these toxins are linked with less overt symptoms of toxicity—intellectual impairments, behavioral problems, spon-taneous abortions, or preterm births. Moreover, there is emerging evidence that decrements in intellectual abilities and low birth weight linked with lead or tobacco are, for a given increment of exposure, greater at lower levels than those found at higher levels.

49. McDonald, Libby. The Toxic Sandbox: The Truth about Environmen-tal Toxins and Our Children’s Health. Penguin, 2007. From pesticides to PCBs—what’s a threat, what’s not, and what to do about it? Mercury. Lead. Pesticides. Plastics. Air pollution. PCBs. How can parents’ sort through the hype, propaganda, and misinformation—and find out what is and isn’t a threat to children’s health? Investigative journalist, advocate, and concerned parent Libby McDonald separates the facts from the alarmist myths. Based on the latest research along with interviews with top medical, toxicological, and envi-ronmental experts, The Toxic Sandbox covers a wide range of essential concerns, including:

50. Buka, Irena, Alvaro Osornio-Vargas, and Robin Walker. “Canada Declares Bisphenol A a ‘Dangerous Substance’: Questioning the Safety of Plastics.” Pediatrics & Child Health 14, no. 1 (2009): 11-13. The Canadian govern-ment has recently taken a bold step in becoming the first country to declare bisphenol A (BPA) a ‘dangerous substance,’ thereby raising strong consideration for its banning (1). It is a synthetic petroleum-based chemical present in a vari-ety of hard plastic products (eg, baby bottles, food storage containers, plastic drinking bottles, food can linings and dental sealants), and has the potential to leach into food. Leaching is accelerated particularly by heating (2). To date, no longitudinal human health effect epidemiological studies have been pub-lished. BPA is an endocrine disruptor and may mimic the hormone estrogen. A recently published review (3) of the literature identified 115 published animal studies, 81% of which found significant effects at low levels of exposure to BPA, meaning that the effects were observed when using less than 50 mg/kg of body weight/day – the accepted ‘no observed adverse effect’ level for BPA

(3). Approximately one third of those studies found effects when testing con-centrations below 50 ug/kg/day.

51. Jacobson, Joseph L., Sandra W. Jacobson, Pamela M. Schwartz, Greta G. Fein, and Jeffrey K. Dowler. “Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxin:

A Test of the Multiple Effects Model.” Developmental Psychology 20, no. 4 (1984): 523. The multiple effects model of teratological exposure predicts that neonatal deficits associated with intrauterine exposure to small doses of a potentially teratogenic agent will vary considerably across individuals. This hypothesis was tested in a sample of 242 newborns exposed prenatally to low levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from maternal consumption of contaminated lake fish and 71 control infants whose mothers did not eat these fish. Behavioral outcomes were assessed using the Brazelton Neonatal Behav-ioral Assessment Scale (NABS). Contaminated fish consumption predicted motoric immaturity, poorer lability of states, a greater amount of startle, and more abnormally weak (hypoactive) reflexes. The most highly exposed Ss were more likely than controls to be classified as “worrisome” on 3 NBAS clusters. Results from a stepwise regression analysis are consistent with the multiple effects model, indicating that some affected Ss were born small and/or early, whereas others exhibited one or another of the behavioral deficits. The analysis indicated that 12.2% of the variance in contaminated fish consumption was associated with measurable neonatal deficits.

52. Bruce, Nigel, Rogelio Perez-Padilla, and Rachel Albalak. “Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: A Major Environmental and Public Health Challenge.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78 (2000): 1078-1092. Around 50% of people, almost all in developing countries, rely on coal and biomass in the form of wood, dung, and crop residues for domestic
energy. These materials are typically burnt in simple stoves with very incom-plete combustion. Consequently, women and young children are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution every day. There is consistent evidence that indoor air pollution increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and of acute respiratory infections in childhood, the most important cause of death among children under 5 years of age in developing countries. Evidence also exists of associations with low birth weight, increased infant and perinatal mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, cata-ract, and, specifically in respect of the use of coal, with lung cancer. Conflicting evidence exists with regard to asthma. All studies are observational and very few have measured exposure directly, while a substantial proportion have not dealt with confounding. As a result, risk estimates are poorly quantified and may be biased. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for some 4% of the global burden of disease. Indoor air pollution is a major global public health threat requiring greatly increased efforts in the areas of research and policy-making. Research on its health effects should be strengthened, particularly in relation to tuberculosis and acute lower respiratory infections. A more systematic approach to the devel-opment and evaluation of interventions is desirable, with clearer recognition of the interrelationships between poverty and dependence on polluting fuels.

53. Viraraghavan, T., K. S. Subramanian, and J. A. Aruldoss. “Arsenic in Drink-ing Water—Problems and Solutions.” Water Science and Technology 40, no. 2 (1999): 69. The current United States maximum contaminant level for arsenic in drinking water is set at 50 ug/l. Because of the cancer risks involved, Canada has already lowered the maximum contaminant level to 25 ug/l; the United States Environmental Protection Agency is reviewing the current allow-able level for arsenic with a view of lowering it significantly. Various treatment

methods have been adopted to remove arsenic from drinking water. These methods include 1) adsorption-coprecipitation using iron and aluminum salts,

2) adsorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, and activated bauxite, 3) reverse osmosis, 4) ion exchange and 5) oxidation followed by filtration. Because of the promise of oxidation-filtration systems, column studies were conducted at the University of Regina to examine oxidation with KMnO4 followed by

filtration using manganese greensand and iron-oxide coated sand to examine the removal of arsenic from drinking water; these results were compared with the data from ion exchange studies. These studies demonstrated that As (III) could be reduced from 200 ug/l to below 25 ug/l by the manganese greensand system. In the case of manganese greensand filtration, addition of iron in the ratio of 20:1 was found necessary to achieve this removal.

54. McCabe, Sean Esteban, John R. Knight, Christian J. Teter, and Henry Wechsler. “Non‐medical Use of Prescription Stimulants Among U.S. College Students: Prevalence and Correlates from a National Survey.” Addiction 100, no. 1 (2005): 96-106. The life-time prevalence of non-medical prescription stimulant use was 6.9%, past year prevalence was 4.1% and past month prevalence was 2.1%. Past year rates of non-medical use ranged from zero to 25% at individual colleges. Multivariate regression analyses indicated non-medical use was higher among college students who were male, white, members of fraternities and sororities and earned lower grade point averages. Rates were higher at colleges located in the north-eastern region of the US and colleges with more competitive admission standards. Non-medical prescription stimulant users were more likely to report use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine and other risky behaviors. The findings of the present study provide evidence that non-medical use of prescription stimulants is more prev-alent among particular subgroups of U.S. college students and types of colleges. The non-medical use of prescription stimulants represents a high-risk behavior that should be monitored further and intervention efforts are needed to curb this form of drug use.

55. Low, K. Graff, and A. E. Gendaszek. “Illicit Use of Psychostimulants Among College Students: A Preliminary Study.” Psychology, Health & Medicine 7, no. 3 (2002): 283-287. There is little recent research on the illicit use of prescription stimulants such as methylphenidate on college campuses. Given the increasing number of amphetamine prescriptions for attention deficit-hy-peractivity disorder in older adolescents, non-medical use seems likely to occur. The present study surveyed undergraduates at a small college in the USA on their use of both legal and illegal stimulants; 35.5% of undergraduates who were convenience-sampled had used prescription amphetamines illicitly (defined as use without a prescription), with men reporting more use than women. Motivations were primarily academic, but 19.3% of students reported using prescription stimulants in combination with alcohol for recreational reasons. In addition, 34% of the sample reported using either cocaine or MDMA in the previous year. Motivations for use of illegal stimulants were primarily rec-reational. Sensation seeking appears to be a correlate of both types of stimulant use; for abuse of prescription drugs, being both high in sensation seeking and more perfectionistic is associated with greater use. Abuse of prescription and illegal stimulants appears to be widespread in this college sample.

56. Hall, Kristina M., Melissa M. Irwin, Krista A. Bowman, William Franken-berger, and David C. Jewett. “Illicit Use of Prescribed Stimulant Medication Among College Students.” Journal of American College Health 53, no. 4 (2005): 167-174. The authors investigated illicit use of stimulant medications at a Midwestern university. They used a questionnaire to (a) examine the extent to which university students illicitly used stimulant medications prescribed for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; (b) determine why college students abused such drugs; and (c) identify the factors that predicted illicit use of pre-scribed stimulant medication. Findings revealed that 17% of 179 surveyed men and 11% of 202 women reported illicit use of prescribed stimulant medication. Forty-four percent of surveyed students stated that they knew students who used stimulant medication illicitly for both academic and recreational reasons. Students reported they experienced time pressures associated with college life and that stimulants were said to increase alertness and energy. Regression anal-ysis revealed that the factor that predicted men’s use was knowing where to get easily acquired stimulant medication, whereas the main predictor for women was whether another student had offered the prescribed stimulants.

57. Teter, Christian J., Sean Esteban McCabe, James A. Cranford, Carol J. Boyd, and Saliy K. Guthrie. “Prevalence and Motives for Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants in an Undergraduate Student Sample.” Journal of American College Health 53, no. 6 (2005): 253-262. To assess the prev-

alence and motives for illicit use of prescription stimulants and alcohol and other drugs (AODs), associated with these motives, the authors distributed a self-administered Web survey to a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate college students. Of the study participants, 8.1% reported lifetime and 5.4% reported past-year illicit use of prescription stimulants. The most prevalent motives given for illicit use of prescription stimulants were to (1) help with concentration, (2) increase alertness, and (3) provide a high. Although men were more likely than women were to report illicit use of prescription stimulants, the authors found no gender differences in motives. Regardless of motive, illicit use of prescription stimulants was associated with elevated rates of AOD use, and number of motives endorsed and AOD use were positively related. Students appear to be using these prescription drugs non-medically, mainly to enhance performance or get high.

58. Lucier, C., Rosofsky, A., London, B., Scharber, H., & Shandra, J. M. (2011). “Toxic Pollution and School Performance Scores: Environmental Ascription in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.” Organization & Environment, 24(4), 423-443. The current study adds to the literature linking environmental pollution and disparities in educational outcomes among vulnerable populations by measuring variations in school performance scores in East Baton Rouge (EBR) Parish, Louisiana. The authors ask whether the unique, place-specific, results of a study such as the 2004 study by Pastor, Sadd, and Morello-Frosch, specifically the finding that schools’ academic performance scores are nega-tively related to proximity to major polluters, can be made somewhat more “general” by examining a similar relationship in another location. The authors closely approximate the model and methodology used by Pastor et al. and then re-specify that model by including new independent variables with a particular focus on alternative and more nuanced measures of proximity to polluters as indicators of potential human exposure. Furthermore, they analyze the rela-tionship between proximity and achievement in terms of disproportionate effects on human capital experienced by vulnerable populations. The findings provide evidence of “environmental ascription,” the idea that “place” (especially, attending school in polluted places) has ascriptive properties. The authors find that, all else equal, their several measures of proximity (to Toxics Release Inventory facilities in general, to high concentrations of toxic emissions, and to high-volume polluters of developmental neurotoxins) are significantly related to school performance scores throughout EBR Parish.

59. Mohai, Paul, Byoung-Suk Kweon, Sangyun Lee, and Kerry Ard. “Air Pol-lution Around Schools is Linked to Poorer Student Health and Academic Performance.” Health Affairs 30, no. 5 (2011): 852-862. Exposing children to environmental pollutants during important times of physiological devel-opment can lead to long-lasting health problems, dysfunction, and disease. The location of children’s schools can increase their exposure. We examined the extent of air pollution from industrial sources around public schools in Michigan to find out whether air pollution jeopardizes children’s health and academic success. We found that schools located in areas with the highest air pollution levels had the lowest attendance rates—a potential indicator of poor health—and the highest proportions of students who failed to meet state edu-cational testing standards. Michigan and many other states currently do not require officials considering a site for a new school to analyze its environmen-tal quality. Our results show that such requirements are needed. For schools already in existence, we recommend that their environmental quality should be investigated and improved if necessary.

Chapter 7 – Standardized tests

60. Atkinson, Richard C., and Saul Geiser. “Reflections on a Century of College Admissions Tests.” Educational Researcher 38, no. 9 (2009): 665-676. The College Boards started as achievement tests designed to measure students’ mas-tery of college preparatory subjects. Admissions testing has significantly changed since then with the introduction of the Scholastic Aptitude Test, Lindquist’s creation of the ACT, renewed interest in subject-specific assessments, and cur-rent efforts to adapt K–12 standards-based tests for use in college admissions. We have come full circle to a renewed appreciation for the value of achievement tests. Curriculum-based achievement tests are more valid indicators of college readiness than other tests and have important incentive or signaling effects for K–12 schools as well: They help reinforce a rigorous academic curriculum and create better alignment of teaching, learning, and assessment along the pathway from high school to college.

61. Zwick, Rebecca, and Jeffrey C. Sklar. “Predicting College Grades and Degree Completion Using High School Grades and SAT Scores: The Role of Student Ethnicity and First Language.” American Educational Research Journal 42, no. 3 (2005): 439-464. The degree to which SAT scores and high school grade-point average (GPA) predicted first-year college GPA (FGPA) and college graduation was examined for four groups: Hispanic students whose first language was Spanish and Hispanic, Black, and White students whose first language was English. The percentage of variance in FGPA jointly explained by high school GPA and SAT score varied from 7% to 20% across groups. Survival analyses showed that high school GPA had a statistically significant influence on graduation in the White/English group; SAT had a significant effect in the Hispanic/English and White/English groups. The regression and survival analyses revealed interesting differences in achievement patterns between the Hispanic/Spanish and Hispanic/English groups, demonstrating the value of taking language background into consideration in educational research.

62. Sawyer, R. (2013). “Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions. Applied Measure-ment in Education, 26(2), 89-112. Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions’ selectivity and definition of success. Analyses of data from 192 institutions suggest that high school GPA is more useful than admission test scores in situations involving low selectivity in admis-sions and minimal to average academic performance in college. In contrast, test scores are more useful than high school GPA in situations involving high selectivity and high academic performance. In nearly all contexts, test scores have incremental usefulness beyond high school GPA. Moreover, high school GPA by test score interactions are important in predicting academic success. (Contains 5 figures, 4 tables, and 4 footnotes.)

63. Tucker, Jan, and Bari Courts. “Grade Inflation in the College Classroom.” Foresight 12, no. 1 (2010): 45-53. Purpose–The purpose of this article is to assess the concept of grade inflation in higher education institutions in an effort to determine its prevalence, causes, and strategies that can be implemented to curtail it. Design/methodology/approach—A literature review of the problem is presented along with several strategies as possible solutions to restraining the problem of escalating grades in the college classroom. Findings—The problem of grade inflation has been a topic of concern for over a century and there are no quick fixes or simple methods of reversing this trend but there are several alternatives presented which could help curtail this trend. Research limitations/ implications—Most of the research is based on anecdotal research. Very little has been written on how to fix this problem. Practical implications—This paper brings this issue to the forefront in an effort to engage the reader, college admin-istrators and educators. Originality/value—The paper begins with an overview of previous research in this area and then moves on to what is currently being implemented to curb grade inflation. The authors then propose several methods and possible solutions that could be implemented to deal with this problem.

64. Ziomek, Robert L., and Joseph C. Svec. “High School Grades and Achieve-ment: Evidence of Grade Inflation.” NASSP Bulletin 81, no. 587 (1997): 105-113. 65.Geiser, Saul, and Veronica Santelices. “The Role of Advanced Placement and Honors Courses in College Admissions.” Expanding Opportunity in Higher Education: Leveraging Promise 75114 (2006). This study examines the role of Advanced Placement (AP) and other honors-level courses as a crite-rion for admission at a leading public university, the University of California, and finds that the number of AP and honors courses taken in high school bears little or no relationship to student’s later performance in college. AP is increasingly emphasized as a factor in admissions, particularly at selective col-leges and universities. But while student performance on AP examinations is strongly related to college performance, merely taking AP or other honors-level courses in high school is not a valid indicator of the likelihood that students will perform well in college. These findings suggest that institutions may need to reconsider the use of AP as a criterion in admissions, particularly given the marked disparity in access to AP and honors courses among disadvantaged and underrepresented minority students.

66. Santoli, Susan P. “Is There an Advanced Placement Advantage?.” Ameri-can Secondary Education (2002): 23-35. Examines potential advantages of Advance Placement (AP) courses for students and schools. Reviews literature on the effects of AP courses on students, AP implications for college admis-sions, AP implications for college attendance, AP economic implications, and AP program concerns. Concludes that AP program advantages for students, schools, and colleges outweigh concerns.

67. Schneider, Jack. “Privilege, Equity, and the Advanced Placement Program: Tug of War.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 41, no. 6 (2009): 813-831. The Advanced Placement Program is growing at a striking rate in U.S. high schools and at the same time being abandoned by high‐status schools. This paper explores the history of the Advanced Placement Program, from its roots in the 1950s as a program for challenging high‐achieving students at high‐status schools, through its equity‐motivated expansion in the latter decades of the 20th century, up to the present as it faces threats to its credibility and prestige. In so doing, it also explores the difficulty of combating inequality with school reform, particularly in light of continuing moves by privileged groups to gain a measure of distinction. In the case of the Advanced Placement Program, a greater push for equity has, ironically, incited a reaction that may, in the end, result in greater inequity. 68. Hernandez, Michele A. A is for Admission: The Insider’s Guide to Getting into the Ivy League and Other Top Colleges. Grand Central Publishing,

2010. A former admissions officer at Dartmouth College reveals how the world’s most highly selective schools really make their decisions.

69. Hughes, Chuck W., and Charles W. II Hughes. What It Really Takes to

Get into the ivy league & Other Highly Selective Colleges. McGraw-Hill, 2003. The ultimate insider’s guide to getting into the nation’s most competitive colleges. Written by a former senior admissions officer at Harvard University, this book provides keen insights into what it takes to get into America’s top schools. With the help of case studies of successful Harvard applicants, Charles Hughes II defines the goals and mission of highly selective schools. He explains the relative weight given to: Academics, Extra-curricular activities, Personal qualities, and Intangibles in the admission process. Hughes breaks down the components of the application, explaining the significance of each and how they are evaluated.

70. Mullen, Ann L. “Elite Destinations: Pathways to Aattending an Ivy League University.” British Journal of Sociology of Education 30, no. 1 (2009): 15-27. As higher education expands and becomes more differentiated, pat-terns of class stratification remain deeply entrenched, in part due to class-based differences in college choice. A qualitative study of 50 Yale students shows the effects of social class, high schools and peers on students’ pathways to college. For students from wealthy and highly educated families, the choice of an Ivy League institution becomes normalized through the inculcated expectations of families, the explicit positioning of schools, and the peer culture. Without these advantages, less-privileged students more often place elite institutions outside the realm of the possible—in part because of concerns of elitism. These findings suggest that even low-socioeconomic status students with exceptional academic credentials must overcome substantial hurdles to arrive at an Ivy League university.

71. E Moll, Richard. “Playing the Private College Admissions Game.” (1979). Truths and myths involved with student admission to Ivy League colleges are revealed by a director of admissions whose experience includes admission work at Vassar, Bowdoin, Harvard and Yale. Several basic concepts are offered as fact: most private colleges in America today are not highly selective; many colleges pose as being more selective than they really are hoping to attract the cream of the crop; few undergraduate institutions in America today are as highly selective as they ever have been; nothing speaks louder than a strong high school record; and given the (rare) highly selective college situation, “other considerations” can indeed enter the picture, some of which the candidate can capitalize on. Myths are centered on such factors as name, location, size, major, social type, and cost. Examples are described rebutting the following myths: the more prestigious the college, the better the college; the smaller the college, the more personal the education; the middle class has been squeezed out of Ivy-type colleges; and single-sex colleges are dead. Other chapters in the book discuss the criteria for admission, how colleges sell themselves, and how a student should choose a college. Five appendices are provided that examine such areas as how financial aid is determined, application procedures, transfer patterns, the Statement of Principles of Good Practice as adopted by the National Association of College Admissions Counselors, and some humorous admission experiences as told by directors of admissions.

72. Murphy, Michael, Mark Harrold, Seán Carey, and Mark Mulrooney. “A Survey of the Level of Learning Disability Among the Prison Population in Ireland.” Dublin: Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform (2000). This study reports the results of a survey on the level of learning disability in Irish prisons commissioned by the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform of the Irish Government commissioned in 1999. The authors completed psychological assessment on 264 prisoners, which represented 10% of the total prisoner population in Ireland at the time of the study. In each of the fourteen prisons ten percent of inmates were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. Assessments included the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT), the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT), the Vocabulary sub test from the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the National Adult Prisoner Survey (NAPS). Results showed that 28.8% of the sample population scored below 70 on the KBIT, which is suggestive of a significant degree of intellectual disability/mental handicap. Results from other tests were consistent with those of the KBIT. The implications of these findings are discussed.

73. Craig, Hugh. “Shakespeare’s Vocabulary: Myth and Reality.” Shakespeare Quarterly 62, no. 1 (2011): 53-74. One of the staples of Shakespeare com-mentary for the past century and more has been the idea that Shakespeare had an exceptionally large vocabulary. Now that electronic texts of early modern English drama are available in quantity, it is possible to check this claim. Com-paring Shakespeare’s plays to a large group of plays by other writers from the period shows that his vocabulary is indeed large, but this would seem to be only because his canon of surviving single-author plays is larger than his contemporaries. Play for play, Shakespeare’s dramatic works fit well with the pattern of others in the number of different words used. The same can be said of the number of new words he introduces into successive plays. Looking at a different measure—the extent to which a playwright’s rate of use of individual words deviates from the average—Shakespeare is remarkable for the closeness of his practice to that of his peers. Whatever quantitative measures reflecting Shakespeare’s acknowledged exceptional status are explored in the future, the evidence of vocabulary size and word-use frequency places Shakespeare with his contemporaries, rather than apart from them.

74. Elliott, Ward EY, and Robert J. Valenza. “Shakespeare’s Vocabulary: Did It Dwarf All Others?.” Shakespeare, who displayed a greater variety of expression than probably any writer in any language, produced all his plays with about 15,000 words. Milton’s works are built up with 8,000 and the Old Testament says all that it has to say with 5,642 words.”Stylistics and Shakespeare’s Language: Transdisciplinary Approaches (2011): 34-57.

Chapter 9 – Extracurricular activities

75. Tyler, Steven, and David Dalton. Does the Noise in My Head Bother You?. Edel: Books, 2012. Does the Noise in My Head Bother You? is the rock memoir to end all rock memoirs—the straight-up, no-holds-barred story of Grammy Award-winning, Rock ‘n’ Roll Hall of Fame inductee, and all around superstar legend Steven Tyler, lead singer of Aerosmith (and celebrity judge on American Idol).The rock and roll epic that is Tyler’s life begins with Tyler’s youth in the Bronx, tracing his early music career and influences, his legendary partnership with Joe Perry, the meteoric rise, fall, and rise of Aerosmith over the last three decades, their music, Tyler’s battles with substance abuse, his epic romantic life, his relationship with his four children (including actress Liv Tyler), life on the road and in the spotlight, the economics of the rock star business—and all the sex, drugs, and rock and roll that anyone could ask for. In Tyler’s own words: “I’ve been mythicized, Mickcized, eulogized and fooligized, I’ve been Cole-Portered and farmer’s-daughtered, I’ve been Led Zepped and 12-stepped. I’m a rhyming fool and so cool that me, Fritz the Cat, and Mohair Sam are the baddest cats that am. I have so many outrageous stories, too many, and I’m gonna tell ’em all. All the unexpurgated, brain-jangling tales of debauchery, sex

& drugs, transcendence & chemical dependence you will ever want to hear. And this is not just my take, this is the unbridled truth, the in-your-face, up-close and prodigious tale of Steven Tyler straight from the horse’s lips.”

76. Rivera, Lauren A. “Ivies, Extracurriculars, and Exclusion: Elite Employers’ Use of Educational Credentials.” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 29, no. 1 (2011): 71-90 Although a robust literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and socio-economic attainment, the processes through which formal schooling yields enhanced economic and social rewards remain less clear. Employers play a crucial role in explaining the returns to formal schooling, yet little is known about how employers, particularly elite employers, use and interpret educational credentials. In this article, I analyze how elite professional service employers use and interpret educational credentials in real-life hiring decisions. I find that educational credentials were the most common criteria employers used to solicit and screen resumes. However, it was not the content of education that elite employers valued but rather its prestige. Contrary to common sociological measures of institutional prestige, employers privileged candidates who possessed a super-elite (e.g., top four) rather than selective university affiliation. They restricted competition to students with elite affiliations and attributed superior abilities to candidates who had been admitted to super-elite institutions, regardless of their actual performance once there. However, a super-elite university affiliation was insufficient on its own. Importing the logic of university admissions, firms performed a strong secondary screen on candidates’ extracurricular accomplishments, favoring high status, resource-intensive activities that resonated with white, upper-middle class culture. I discuss these findings in terms of the changing nature of educational credentialism to suggest that (a) extracurricular activities have become creden-tials of social and moral character that have monetary conversion value in labor markets and (b) the way employers use and interpret educational credentials contributes to a social closure of elite jobs based on socio-economic status.

77. Swanson, Christopher B. “Spending Time or Investing Time? Involve-ment in High School Curricular and Extracurricular Activities as Strategic Action.” Rationality and Society 14, no. 4 (2002): 431-471. A rational choice perspective on social behavior implies that individuals engage in purposive action with the intention of maximizing their interests in valued objectives. Although adolescents have more often been viewed as products of their envi-ronments than as rational actors, the choices they face in allocating time and effort among different activities can influence their ability to achieve important life goals. This article develops a conceptual model of involvement as invest-ment to characterize participation in high school curricular and extracurricular activities and the returns they yield for college matriculation. Data from a national sample of students and schools and multi-level statistical methods are used to explore a set of empirical questions derived from this model. Findings demonstrate that activity involvement displays properties characteristic of social exchange and investment. Involvement in both the formal curriculum and school extracurriculars yields significant returns for college matriculation while also showing evidence of diminishing returns associated with overinvest-ing. Results further show that the point of diminishing returns to investment in formal curricular activities comes at higher levels of involvement for pro-gressively more competitive outcomes and that rates of curricular returns are linked to an actor’s goal specificity. Comparisons between actual and optimal patterns of investment suggest that high school students are relatively strategic in their activity involvement.

Chapter 10 – The essay

78. Freire, Paulo. “The Importance of the Act of Reading.” Journal of Education 165, no. 1 (1983): 5-11. The question of the importance of reading is addressed by considering the ways in which experience itself is read through the interac-tion of the self and the world. Through examining memories of childhood, it is possible to view objects and experiences as texts, words, and letters and to see the growing awareness of the world as a kind of reading through which the self learns and changes. The actual act of reading literary texts is seen as part of a wider process of human development and growth based on understanding both one’s own experience and the social world. Learning to read must be seen as one aspect of the act of knowing and as a creative act. Reading the world thus precedes reading the word and writing a new text must be seen as one means of transforming the world.

79. Cox, Brian. Literacy Is Not Enough: Essays on the Importance of Reading. Manchester University Press, 1999. The last two decades have witnessed a considerable reaction to the progressive utopianism of the 1960s. In education debates all over the English-speaking world, the talk is now of competition, back to basics, league tables, the demands of the market. This reaction has gone too far. Children need to be helped not only to achieve basic literacy but to read “critically,” to discriminate, to evaluate, to enjoy great literature. It is not enough to help children to achieve literacy if this simply means they read only sufficiently well to be seduced by advertisers and tabloid newspapers. The essays in this book are by people engaged in the “promotion” of English, be they primary teachers or university lecturers, novelists or poets, publishers or social commentators, politicians or professors.

80. Ross, Catherine Sheldrick, Lynne McKechnie, and Paulette M. Rothbauer. Reading Matters: What the Research Reveals About Reading, Libraries, and Community. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006. Drawing upon data published in a variety of scholarly journals, monographs in education, cultural studies, media studies, and libraries and information studies, as well as their
own research findings, these authors shatter some of the popular myths about reading and offer a cogent case for the library’s vital role in the life of a reader. By providing a road map to research findings on reading, reader-response, audiences, genres, the value of popular culture, the social nature of reading, and the role of libraries in promoting literacy and reading, this guide offers a clear rationale for making pleasure reading a priority in the library and in schools. The authors assert that reading for pleasure is as vital as ever; and that it is, and should be, woven into the majority of activities librarians consider fundamental: reference, collection building, provision of leisure materials, readers’ advisory services, storytelling programs, adult literacy programs, and the like. Reading Matters covers myths about reading, the boy problem, read-ing and identity, how readers select books, and reading as a social activity. An essential resource for library administrators and personnel, the book will help them convey a message about the importance of reading to grant-funding agencies and others. It contains powerful proof that can be used to justify the establishment, maintenance, and growth of fiction (and other pleasure reading) collections, and of readers’ advisory services. It is also of interest to LIS faculty who wish to establish/maintain courses in readers’ advisory and can be used as supplemental reading in these classes. Finally, it is a great model and aide for additional research on this topic.

81. Daiute, Colette, and Bridget Dalton. “Collaboration Between Children Learning to Write: Can Novices Be masters?.” Cognition and Instruction 10, no. 4 (1993): 281-333. This study describes social aspects of the liter-acy learning process among young peers and synthesizes distinct strands of research on socially constructed literacy. Fourteen 7- to 9-year-old children in a third-grade urban classroom wrote four stories individually and three stories collaboratively with a partner over a 3-month period. Analyses of the children’s individual and collaborative stories and transcripts of their collab-oration processes as they composed together were done to identify children’s expertise as writers and to trace any transfer of knowledge about the structure of stories between partners. Analyses of the 7,512 talk turns in the collabora-tive composing sessions showed that 95 % of the story elements added after collaboration had been the focus of children’s talk as they composed together. Furthermore, children who demonstrated even minimal ability to write stories transferred basic aspects of story structure to each other. To learn more about the social nature of literacy development, we related these children’s collaboration processes to those identified as important in teacher-student collaborations (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989). Like expert-novice pairs, young peers used generative processes and reflective processes, yet they also did considerable repeating, which seemed to serve them well. This study shows that the literacy learning process involves intense engagement among young peers who share their relative expertise as they focus intellectual and social energies on the text they create together.

82. Teasley, Stephanie D. “Talking About Reasoning: How Important Is the Peer in Peer Collaboration?.” In Discourse, Tools and Reasoning, pp. 361-384. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1997. Using data from two studies of scientific reasoning, this chapter explores whether transactive discussion is the basis of productive peer collaborations and questions what role the partner plays in the apparent effectiveness of this type of discussion. In the first study, dyads who engaged in transactive discussion showed more improvement than dyads who did not have transactive discussions. In the second study, both dyads and children working alone showed improvement related to talk in general. However, dyads produced more transactive types of talk and showed a more complex understanding of the problem that they generated more quickly. Having a partner was not a necessary or sufficient condition for producing transactive talk but increased likelihood that it would occur. The data from these studies suggest that the value of peer collaborations may be that the presence of a partner provides a natural context for elaborating one’s own reasoning.

83. O’Malley, Patrick M., and Lloyd D. Johnston. “Epidemiology of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among American College Students.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Supplement 14 (2002): 23-39. This article provides information on the extent of alcohol use and other drug use among American college stu-dents. Five different sources of data are examined for estimating recent levels of alcohol (and other drug) use among college students: Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS), the Core Institute (CORE), Monitoring the Future (MTF), National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) and National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). Alcohol use rates are very high among college students. Approximately two of five American college students were heavy drinkers, defined as having had five or more drinks in a row in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol use is higher among male than female students. White students are highest in heavy drinking, black students are lowest and Hispanic students are intermediate. Use of alcohol—but not cigarettes, marijuana and cocaine—is higher among college students than among non-college age-mates. Longitudinal data show that, while in high school, students who go on to attend college have lower rates of heavy drinking than do those who will not attend college. Both groups increase their heavy drinking after high school graduation, but the college students increase distinctly more and actually surpass their nonstudent age-mates. Trend data from 1980 to 1999 show some slight improvement in recent years. Despite improvements in the past 20 years, colleges need to do more to reduce heavy alcohol use among students.

84. Furr, Susan R., John S. Westefeld, Gaye N. McConnell, and J. Marshall Jenkins. “Suicide and Depression Among College Students: A Decade Later.” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 32, no. 1 (2001): 97. Are suicidal thoughts and depression increasing or decreasing among college students? What life circumstances are the most critical to explore with depressed or suicidal college students? This article focuses on the rate of self-assessed depression and suicide among college students and examines contributing fac-tors and help-seeking behavior. Results of the study indicated that 53% of the sample stated that they experienced depression since beginning college, with 9% reporting that they had considered committing suicide since beginning college. Suggestions for college mental health practitioners related to programming, prevention, and psychoeducation are described.

85. Hunt, Justin, and Daniel Eisenberg. “Mental Health Problems and Help-seeking Behavior Among College Students.” Journal of Adolescent Health 46, no. 1 (2010): 3-10. Mental disorders are as prevalent among college students as same-aged non-students, and these disorders appear to be increasing in number and severity. The purpose of this report is to review the research literature on college student mental health, while also drawing comparisons to the parallel literature on the broader adolescent and young adult populations.

Chapter 13 – Which college?

86. Goldring, Ellen B., and Kristie JR Phillips. “Parent Preferences and Parent Choices: The Public–private Decision About School Choice.” Journal of Education Policy 23, no. 3 (2008): 209-230. School choice survey data from the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, a large county‐wide school district, is analyzed to examine the characteristics of parents who consider choosing private schools for their children and those who do not. We examine differences in background, including race, educational attainment and socioeconomic status, as well as differences in parent satisfaction with their child’s previous school, parent involvement in school, parents’ priorities in school choice, as well as parents’ social networks. After controlling for background characteris-tics, we find that parent satisfaction with their child’s previous school was not a predictor of considering a private school. Rather, parent involvement seems to be a more important indicator of whether or not a parent would consider sending their child to a private school. In this case, parents are not ‘pushed’ away from public schools, contrary to much public rhetoric that suggests private schools are somehow inherently ‘better’ than public schools and parents who are dissatisfied with their public schools will opt for private schools. Instead, these findings suggest a ‘pull’ towards private schools. Parents may perceive that parent involvement and parent communication are more easily facilitated and valued in private schools.

87. Holmes, George M., Jeff DeSimone, and Nicholas G. Rupp. “Does School Choice Increase School Quality? Evidence from North Carolina Charter Schools.” In Improving School Accountability, pp. 131-155. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2006. Federal “No Child Left Behind” legislation, which enables students of low-performing schools to exercise public school choice, exemplifies a widespread belief that competing for students will spur public schools to higher achievement. We investigate how the introduction of school choice in North Carolina, via a dramatic increase in the number of charter schools, affects student performance on statewide end-of-year testing at traditional public schools. We find test score gains from competition that are robust to a variety of specifications. Charter school competition causes an approximately one percent increase in the score, which constitutes about one quarter of the average yearly growth.

88. Belfield, Clive R., and Henry M. Levin. “—Modeling School Choice: A Comparison of Public, Private–Independent, Private–Religious, and Home-Schooled Students.” In Privatizing Educational Choice, pp. 89-102. Routledge, 2015. U.S. students now have four choices of schooling: public schooling, private–religious schooling, private–independent schooling, and home-schooling. Of these, home-schooling is the most novel: since legaliza-tion across the states in the last few decades, it has grown in importance and legitimacy as an alternative choice. Thus, it is now possible to investigate the motivation for home-schooling, relative to the other schooling options. Here, we use two recent large-scale datasets to assess the school enrollment decision:

the first is the National Household Expenditure Survey (1999), and the second is micro-data on SAT test-takers in 2001. We find that, generally, families with home-schoolers have similar characteristics to those with children at other types of school, but mother’s characteristics—specifically, her employment status—have a strong influence on the decision to home-school. Plausibly, religious belief has an important influence on the schooling decision, not only for Catholic students, but also those of other faiths.

Chapter 17- Putting it all together

89. McCabe, Sean Esteban, John R. Knight, Christian J. Teter, and Henry Wechsler. “Non‐medical Use of Prescription Stimulants Among U.S. Col-lege Students: Prevalence and Correlates from a National Survey.” Addiction 100, no. 1 (2005): 96-106. The life-time prevalence of non-medical pre-scription stimulant use was 6.9%, past year prevalence was 4.1% and past month prevalence was 2.1%. Past year rates of non-medical use ranged from zero to 25% at individual colleges. Multivariate regression analyses indicated non-medical use was higher among college students who were male, white, members of fraternities and sororities and earned lower grade point averages. Rates were higher at colleges located in the north-eastern region of the U.S. and colleges with more competitive admission standards. Non-medical prescription stimulant users were more likely to report use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine and other risky behaviors. The findings of the present study provide evidence that non-medical use of prescription stimulants is more prev-alent among particular subgroups of US college students and types of colleges. The non-medical use of prescription stimulants represents a high-risk behavior that should be monitored further and intervention efforts are needed to curb this form of drug use.

90. O’Malley, Patrick M., and Lloyd D. Johnston. “Epidemiology of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among American College Students.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Supplement 14 (2002): 23-39. Alcohol use rates are very high among college students. Approximately two of five American college students were heavy drinkers, defined as having had five or more drinks in a row in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol use is higher among male than female students. White students are highest in heavy drinking, black students are lowest and Hispanic students are intermediate. Use of alcohol—but not cigarettes, marijuana and cocaine—is higher among college students than among non-college age-mates. Longitudinal data show that, while in high school, students who go on to attend college have lower rates of heavy drinking than do those who will not attend college. Both groups increase their heavy drinking after high school graduation, but the college students increase distinctly more and actually sur-pass their nonstudent age-mates. Trend data from 1980 to 1999 show some slight improvement in recent years. Despite improvements in the past 20 years, colleges need to do more to reduce heavy alcohol use among students.

91. Cope-Watson, Georgann, and Andrea Smith Betts. “Confronting Otherness: An E-conversation Between Doctoral Students Living with the Imposter Syndrome.” Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education/Revue can-adienne des jeunes chercheures et chercheurs en éducation 3, no. 1 (2010). This qualitative research study is about two women doctoral students who are experiencingThe Imposter Syndrome, (Clance & Imes, 1978), a phenomenon characterized by an inability to internalize academic success. The purpose of this study is to connect the theoretical frameworks around this phenomenon to our experiences as women graduate students in a doctoral program. The research question for this study is: Do our email conversations provide us with clues to explain our imposter feelings? The methodology for this study is autoeth-nography (Ellis, 1997). Emails collected over an eight-month period provide the data for this study. To analyze the data we used thematic analysis. The data reveal three predominant themes: fear, family and fellowship. The findings of this study provoke an extension into the experiences of other doctoral students as they meet the challenges of self-concepts in their course of study.

92. Chapman, Amanda. “Using the Assessment Process to Overcome Impostor Syndrome in Mature Students.” Journal of Further and Higher Education 41, no. 2 (2017): 112-119. This research draws on the experience of a group of mature students’ studies during their first year at university. All experienced varying degrees of impostor syndrome, feelings of fraudulence and a lack of confidence in their ability. The process of “becoming” a mature student is one of identity change and risk. Gaining a sense of belonging to the institution and academia is an important part of the transition year, but the assimilation into the culture of university life can be problematic. The first assessment for all students can be seen as a “rite of passage” on the journey of “belonging.” So for mature students who may have had a substantial gap in their education, this can be a critical moment in their progression through the transition year. Negotiation through the culture and language of academia can lead to misunderstanding and self-doubt, and the process of assessment can be an emotional journey for some students. In this article the students describe their experiences of the assessment process and their need for feedback. Facing the judgement of their peer group and the academic staff was a particular fear of most of the students, as was the difficulty in both “getting started” on and “letting go” of their written work. The article concludes with a discussion of the role of assessment in relation to confidence building and to overcoming Imposter Syndrome.

93. Clance, Pauline Rose, and Maureen Ann O’Toole. “The Impostor Phenom-enon: An Internal Barrier to Empowerment and Achievement.” Women & Therapy 6, no. 3 (1987): 51-64. Discusses the impostor phenomenon (IP), a term used by P. R. Clance and S. A. Imes to designate an internal experience of phoniness, which seemed particularly prevalent among their sample of 150 high achieving women. It is asserted that IP sufferers do not have a realistic sense of their own competence and are not fully empowered to internalize their strengths, accept their deficits, and function with joy. It is suggested that impostor fears may interfere more with women’s functioning than men’s (e.g., decreasing their striving for high academic achievement). Ten features that accompany IP beliefs in the typical female clients are listed; IP treatment issues are discussed. A copyrighted IP questionnaire is included.

94. Topping, Mary E., and Ellen B. Kimmel. “The Impostor Phenomenon: Feeling Phony.” Academic Psychology Bulletin (1985). Examined the con-struct validity of the impostor phenomenon (IP) using J. C. Harvey’s (1982) measure of IP. IP is defined as an internal experience of intellectual phoniness. A modified version of the IP scale and 7 additional instruments (e.g., a sex-role behavior index, a self-esteem scale) were also administered to 285 university faculty (128 men, 157 women). Men earned a significantly higher mean IP scale score than women. For both sexes, level of faculty rank, self-esteem, and attributing success to effort were negatively related to IP and trait anxiety was positively related to IP. Attributing success to ability was negatively related to IP for men; across sexes there was a moderate, positive relationship between IP and self-monitoring behavior. It is concluded that if experiencing the IP is a barrier to fulfilling one’s potential, as is posited by some, then there is a need

to refine methods for its early identification and possible intervention.